An increasingly restless earth is producing climate anomalies in distant regions. Europe has just emerged from a severe drought only to be flooded by heavy rains. Pakistan, too, has been inundated, and as the poor possess fewer resources their suffering is worse. Its province of Balochistan is one example.
According to Pakistan’s environment minister, Sherry Rehman, the monsoon season affects the region usually in three or four waves bringing in much needed rain. This year they have already had eight waves and severe flooding is the result. Bridges have been washed out leaving many people stranded away from their homes. These, which are often constructed of mud, have not been spared.
Aid is difficult to provide quickly when many roads and bridges have become unusable. As often happens, the army has been called in and also the navy as the area has become a virtual inland sea. Also in a relatively sparsely populated region the problem of reaching everyone in need quickly is understandable.
Ths catastrophe is being called the country’s worst natural disaster on record. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) estimates that 287,412 homes have been completely destroyed and another 662,446 partially destroyed. The death toll has surpassed 1000, and the NDMA estimates that 1 in 7 of the population or 33 million people have been affected.
In addition, the floods have covered millions of acres of farmland inundating the crop fields and adding to the losses of flood victims — the tragedy is the crops were ready for harvest. The inevitable consequence is soaring prices across the country.
Cumulative infrastructure data since mid-June shows 3451km (2000 miles approximately) of roads damaged or washed away and 149 collapsed bridges leaving a colossal task of repair and restoration.
The UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, a former prime minister of Portugal, is familiar with power plays and counterplays but is no doubt shocked at Pakistan’s neighbor India — right next door and so far immune to Pakistan’s calls for international help when a third of the country is under water.
Guterres has called it “a monsoon on steroids” and launched a $160 million appeal in aid of those affected by the disaster. He has also drawn attention to global warming: “Let’s stop sleepwalking towards the destruction of our planet by climate change. Today, it’s Pakistan; tomorrow it could be your country.” His UN appeal would supply 5.2 million people with food, water, sanitation, and continuing emergency education and health support.
Meanwhile the monsoon is set to continue according to the latest weather reports. If ‘hell or high water’ is an expression intended to express extreme difficulties, a poor South Asian country is suffering both and needs our help.
MV X-Press Pearl: A Conundrum of Maritime Jurisdiction
Kashmir as a Humanitarian Issue
Dr. Arshad M. Khan is a former Professor based in the US. Educated at King's College London, OSU and The University of Chicago, he has a multidisciplinary background that has frequently informed his research. Thus he headed the analysis of an innovation survey of Norway, and his work on SMEs published in major journals has been widely cited. He has for several decades also written for the press: These articles and occasional comments have appeared in print media such as The Dallas Morning News, Dawn (Pakistan), The Fort Worth Star Telegram, The Monitor, The Wall Street Journal and others. On the internet, he has written for Antiwar.com, Asia Times, Common Dreams, Counterpunch, Countercurrents, Dissident Voice, Eurasia Review and Modern Diplomacy among many. His work has been quoted in the U.S. Congress and published in its Congressional Record.
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Authors: Harsh Mahaseth and Niharika Goel*
When the MV X-Press Pearl cargo ship owned by a Singapore-based company caught fire near the Colombo harbour of Sri Lanka, it caused the worst catastrophe of the decade. While the coordination amongst the involved countries stood disturbed, it posed a conundrum regarding who shall be held liable for the damages involved.
The Singaporean ship set sail from Malaysia, entering service in February of 2021. However, while returning from its third journey from Qatar to Malaysia, it sunk off the coast of Sri Lanka, near the Colombo harbor, after it caught fire. The crew was attempting to tow the vessel into deeper waters when the mishappening took place. Navy Media spokesman Captain Indika de Silva said,
“The towing the ship to the deeper seas was abandoned as the stern of the ship sank to the sea bed while it was being towed 500 to 600 m westward.”
This vessel was ablaze at the Sri-Lanka’s shoreline for thirteen days. By late June, only four months after it had first headed out, the desolated transport was sitting 70 feet underneath the Indian Ocean. The spread of pellets and nurdles, surprisingly found in the gills and paunches of dead fishes, is predicted to reach the Indian coastline, Maldives, Madagascar, Thailand and Indonesia owing to the currents caused by the cyclone Yaas. Other controversial elements, including synthetic compounds like nitric corrosive, sodium dioxide, copper, and lead would also not take long to enter the human circulatory systems because of the wide utilization of fish in the concerned area.
Being a vessel registered to the flag of Singapore, manufactured by a company in China, insured by a company in the United Kingdom, enroute via India to Malaysia from Saudi Arabia, creating a catastrophe at Sri Lanka builds a jurisdictional conundrum. The crew was aware of the corrosive, toxic and flammable liquid, nitric acid when it was loaded in Dubai. Adding to the complexity, they were also denied permission by Qatar and India to dock the ship which resulted in a longer than usual route. Despite such lack of cooperation between the concerned nations, along with limited offshore capacities, the vessel progressed into Sri Lankan waters with its controversial cargo onboard.
Under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, the limit of territorial sea of a State extends to 12 nautical miles from the baseline under Article 3, the Contiguous Zone extends to 24 nautical miles from the baseline under Article 33 and the breadth of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extends to 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured under Article 57. Location of the sinking ship or ship wreck has been within the territorial sea lesser than 12 nautical miles from the shore of Sri Lanka. Further, the commonly accepted polluter pays principle states that those who produce the pollution shall bear the cost to reduce, if not eliminate, the environmental damage caused by such catastrophe. The owner of the company and the flagged country is Singapore which thus, will be equally liable.
Article 235 and Article 192 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1982 creates general obligations on the state to protect the marine environment, to which Sri Lanka is a signatory. Article 220(6) when read with Article 211(6) of UNCLOS provides states the power to enact laws for damages and institute proceedings, in cases with evidence of a violation by a vessel causing damage or threat of damage to economic zone. While, lacunae present in the legal remedies pertaining to damages caused by hazardous noxious substances is abridged by the Hazardous and Noxious Substance (HNS) Convention and the 2010 protocol by a two-tier compensation regime but the convention is still pending ratification by the required number of states and thus has not come into force yet. To bridge the gap in the provisions regarding matters concerning hazardous substance, the definition of a harmful substance under Section 2(2) of the MARPOL Convention, provides to mean any substance which, if introduced into the sea, is liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea, and includes any substance subject to control by the Convention.
Part VIII (Prevention of Pollution – Criminal Liability) and Part IX (Prevention of Pollution – Civil Liability) of the Sri Lanka’s Marine Pollution Prevention Act, 2008 enumerate civil and criminal liability in the MV X Press Pearl case. Section 26(a) of the Act will impose criminal liability on the owner, master, or agent of the ship charging fine up to Rs. 4 Million (not exceeding Rs. 14 Million) if any oil, harmful substance, or pollutant is discharged into the territorial borders of Sri Lanka, and civil liability under Section 34 provides for unlimited recovery of any damages caused by the pollutant, costs of measures taken for the purpose of reducing/removing such pollutant from the territorial waters of Sri Lanka.
Ship owners register their vessel in a country other than that of the ship owners to avoid stringent taxes under the business practice termed Flag of convenience (FOC). For such flag states, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS) enforces responsibilities ensuring that the vessels comply with the rules and standards of the registered state jurisdiction including periodic inspections of the vessels, and prohibition of vessels from flying their flags in cases of non-compliance. Keeping in consideration the cargo onboard, the Hague Visby Rules obligates a contract of carriage evidenced by the bill of lading which would invariably provide for application of. For an owner to exclude any liability under the Hague Visby Rules, they need to establish and prove that they exercised due diligence in the beginning of the voyage (Article III (1)) and they had taken continuous care of the cargo under their responsibility (Article III (2)).
The flag state, Singapore also stands liable under Article 3 of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (Bunker Convention), 2001 which provides for strict liability of the owner under three heads of pollution damage. Damage caused in Singapore by the contamination, entire costs and expenses incurred in establishing reasonable measures to reduce the damage, and any additional damages caused to Singapore due to any such measures will also be recovered. In conclusion, the owner of the ship will not only be liable to pay for the damages caused but also for costs incurred in the restoration of such damages. As Article 3 provides for strict liability of the owner, there are limited defences available for the owner namely act of war or inevitable phenonmenon, a third party not an employee or agent of the owner, negligent act of government in exercising functions of navigations aids were the cause of discharge by the vessel. However, a strict liability arises imposed on the vessel owner and their insurers for the costs of any preventive or recovery measures. While the Convention for Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (LLMC), 1976 administers compensation amount to be paid by ship owners in such cases, the subsequently amended LLMC agreed in 1996 (the 1996 Protocol) subsequently increases the cap for compensation in direct proportion to the gross tonnage of the vessel with no prescribed defences available. The matter can also be subjected to an ad hoc arbitration agreement after due consent of the parties involved, which is preferable in claims of contracts of carriage for a more flexible and confidential settlement of the dispute.
The Centre for Environmental Justice has filed charges against the Sri Lankan Government, as well as the shipping company involved with the situation alleged that the ship-owners already knew about the concerned acid leak, and asked for both civil and criminal action with the crew being taken into custody. The vessel’s operator, X-Press Feeders paid an initial payment of $3.6 million against the $300 million USD sought to the Sri Lankan Government.
*Niharika Goel is a final-year law student who is also working as a research assistant to Assistant Professor Harsh Mahaseth.
Kashmir is suffering through brutal fight of terror since 1990, but India has failed to crush the right of self-determination of Kashmir. Kashmir valley is filled with thousands of Indian forces that are trying to control the mounting sentiments of public against India by the use of force. India has imposed many inhuman laws to legitimize the use of force and repress Kashmir’s.
Without any doubt, everyone knows that the cruelty and brutality of Indian forces in Indian occupied Kashmir is to create fear and to suppress the Kashmiris. India has failed to suppress Kashmiris by Indian laws, which only resulted in massive violation of human rights. A lot of work has been done on the issue of Kashmir, but most work is on historical and ideological perspectives of Kashmir issue, violence caused by accession to India. There is not much work specifically on the international human right violation, which is caused by different Indian laws. To understand the specific laws, which are meant to create peace in Kashmir but unfortunately cause more destruction, and violence, which has resulted in more important step, which should be taken by the World, not for the Kashmiris struggle but for their fundamental rights to life and liberty as well.
Iffat Malik’s book “Kashmir ethnic conflict International Dispute” analyzed that Kashmir issue as an ethnic conflict and as an international dispute is closely interlinked. To resolve the Kashmir issue, it is important to understand the importance of ethnic conflict between two main groups, i.e. Muslims and Pundits. Pandits are more conscious of being Hindu whereas Kashmiri Muslims of being Muslims, both ethnic groups are strong rooted with their religion. Differences also lie in the attitudes of both these groups to India, Muslims have drawn further away from India, and Pandits have drawn closer to it. The Kashmir conflict forced Pandit to increase their fear as a minority within Kashmir, which resulted in Hindus more conscious and closer to India. An increasing number of Kashmiri Muslims want Independence. The ethnic conflict in the valley thus remains distinct from the international dispute between India and Pakistan. Pakistan is backing the Kashmiri Muslims with the intention that the state accede to it; Pakistan and the Kashmiri Muslims have a common goal of ending Indian rule in Kashmir. In Kashmir, people have real grievances against New Delhi but Indian government blame for the ethnic conflict on 11 Pakistan. Kashmir issue has been dragged so much that now both countries need strong government to handle this border dispute. Now there are three parties, Pakistan, India and Kashmir involved in this international dispute as internal politics of Kashmir has harden the situation too.
It’s very unfortunate that India who is framed to be World’s Largest Democracy not respect the freedom of expression in media. Democratic Nations should stay committed to the values of human rights moreover they should show tolerance even in the toughest and challenging times. However “Right to freedom of expression” is an inseparable element of “Democracy” and it is essential to guarantee and respect the fundamental rights of every individual which are even protected in the constitution and international instruments for the survival of democracy.
Since World War II, international political system has been dominated by the super powers and there has been great influence of United States of America and Soviet Union on South Asia, which has been a major barrier in reaching on a decision of Kashmir issue. Another reason behind the failure of United Nation has been Indian government, the non-corporative attitude, the way Indian government avoided plebiscite, because they knew that Kashmir, which is highly populated by Muslim majority, would vote in favor of Pakistan. Indian representatives never took interest in Security Council debates, as it was quite clear that India wanted to buy more time. Nehru backed out of his words of plebiscite since 1955 and reportedly offered for status quo settlement subject only to minor boundary adjustments. Actually Indian government wanted a conclusion from United Nations against Pakistan, but United Nations refused, on which Nehru refused to hold plebiscite.
Realist and Liberalist Perspective on Human Right Violation in Kashmir
Realism talks about power, main aim of state is to maximize their power. Keeping in mind state seeks power; India has the same objective in Kashmir. There are many reasons that India wants to maintain its dominance in Kashmir through its security forces. Realism is about national interest for survival, and as in anarchic environment state is the only one who has to compete for its survival. “Concept of Security” defines expertly the relation between national security and human security, as they both are interlinked, with time connection of national and human security.
Perspectives have been observed which can be understood by an example of outwardly aggressive and inwardly repressive regimes can be a major source of human insecurity. Major reason stated for promoting a human security perspective is that of an “enlightened self-interest”. A state for survival has to respect the security of its citizens, and the security of citizens of other states. This demonstrates one possible connection between human security especially aspects of livelihood security and how these interact with national security issues. Kashmir is fighting for the right of self-determination, which India is not ready to give. India for its national interest and power, is keeping dominance in Kashmir through its security force and terror of its laws to maintain its power in South Asia region. India can only keep its control on the resources of Jammu & Kashmir by power, otherwise once Kashmir freedom movement succeeds, Indian economy and agriculture will be influenced. Kashmir has a great strategic, political and economic significance, which are imperative for India and Pakistan. Water is the central and an important need of any country’s survival. It is water that India is determined or won’t be wrong to say obdurate to keep Kashmir in its territory, without the willingness of the people of Kashmir. There are six rivers under Indus Basin Rivers in which the Indus itself, Chenab, Jhelum, Beas, Sutlej and Ravi, which originate in the Jammu & Kashmir. India is very much dependent on these rivers, as well Pakistan. There is common dependency of these two countries, which is agriculture, which relies on waters of Indus Basin Rivers. Pakistan is more dependent on river waters than India. India has some other sources of water too. Indian agricultural reliance on Indus Basin River is similar and equal to Pakistan.
Production of agriculture from Kashmir, contributes large portion to the India economy, which include apple, timber and saffron. Due to India’s occupation of Kashmir, it is geography of the rivers, which gives strategic dominance to India in the issue of water. India is dependent for agriculture, generation of hydropower and irrigation on the river waters in Kashmir. In 1957, Mr. Patel, Indian irrigation minister said, that India would not wait for more than 5 years before withdrawing waters from the three eastern rivers irrespective of the resolution of the water dispute. Another on December 2001, on the terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament, India increased the possibility of withdrawing the 1960 Treaty, as part of a strategy of coercive diplomacy with Pakistan. Morgenthau believed that environment plays an important role in shaping the interests to determine political action. Keeping in mind realist perspective, India has same intentions on Kashmir, which is national interest for survival, because of Indus Basin Rivers, which is very important for India’s agriculture, as it supports the Indian economy. However, Liberalism talks about human rights, freedom from authority, equal rights and opportunities, and same laws for everyone. India is one of the largest democratic countries in the world. One of the important characteristics of a democratic country is to protect the basic human rights like give freedom of speech and religion to individual, equal opportunities for everyone under law and an equal chance to everyone to participate politically and economically in a society. Considering the liberalist, India, as a democratic country should provide equal opportunities to everyone, even in Jammu & Kashmir. India claims to have given democratic rights to the people of Kashmir, but by keeping their own national interests. People of Kashmir have been given right to elect the government, but since too long India has been governing in Kashmir through its security forces and have forced people to elect the pro-Indian representatives. In the same way, India has been violating human rights under the umbrella of special laws, these special laws that are implemented by the state. Under these special laws and democracy thousands of innocent people get killed and tortured. India is using Kashmir for its national interest of survival to utilize resources of Kashmir and to boost Indian economy, by claiming democracy and by giving equality under special laws.
Kashmir issue has always been in the highlight of the World, because of its freedom struggle which they are fighting since the ages, but now there is more important issue which not only needs World attention, but it desperately need immediate action by the international community. Democratic Countries are always recognized for their morals and principles, from which India has been contradicting since the partition till now by oppressing Kashmiris in every inhuman way. Unfortunately the role of international community has been seen just in speeches and only in visits. No prominent action has been taken by United Nation against India on violation of International humanitarian law. The poorer condition of human rights in Jammu & Kashmir has resulted disappointment and frustration in Kashmiri youth, but they are still honest with their cause without any fear and terror of Indian security forces and special laws. They believe in peaceful fight and know how to make their voice loud and clear for the World. India must have realized by now, that Kashmiris will never give up from their right of self-determination. Its better if India accept the reality that India will never going to get the vote of confidence from Kashmiris not even by making this chaos with the lives of Kashmiris.
There is an energy and food crisis worldwide. None of the global supply systems is in a normal state. Amid this, if we want to produce more food, we must maintain the supply of fertilisers because it is directly related to food production.
Fertilizers are essential for crop production systems in modern agriculture. Among the regulators affecting crop production, fertilizers play a very important role in increasing yield. In fact, the success of the Bangladesh agricultural production system is dependent on inorganic fertilizers. Because these fertilizers are responsible for 50 percent of the total production. However, the contribution of fertilizers to crop production also depends on crop, crop density, season, soil properties and management etc.
Chemical (inorganic) fertilizers were introduced in Bangladesh in the early fifties as a supplementary source of plant nutrients. But with the introduction and expansion of modern varieties of crops and the creation of irrigation facilities, the use of these fertilizers has steadily increased since the mid-sixties. The trend of increasing fertilizer use, especially urea-nitrogen, continues.
Due to the increase in the price of fertilizer in the international market and Russia-Ukraine war, the government of Bangladesh has to buy fertilizer at least three times the price. On the other hand, the prices of fertilizers sold at subsidized prices in the local market are not able to increase. As a result, the amount of subsidy is increasing. The government of Bangladesh is describing it as ‘both crises’.
Although Bangladesh is a major agricultural country, almost all of its fertilizer requirements are imported from abroad. But regardless of the import price, the government sells the fertilizer to the farmer at a nominal price, adding a subsidy. But in the last one year, the price of fertilizer in the international market has almost tripled. Bangladesh is taking several new steps in agriculture.
Most of the fertilizer we need in our country has to be brought from abroad. But due to the coronavirus, ongoing Russia-Ukraine war and the increase in oil prices, the prices of fertilizers have gone up a lot. Fertilizer factories in many countries have closed, they have stopped or reduced exports. As a result, the demand has increased compared to the supply, so the price has also increased.
Urea, TSP, DAP and MOP fertilizers are mainly used in agriculture in Bangladesh. But a year ago, one metric ton of urea was bought for 500 dollars from the international market, but now it has exceeded 800 dollars. The price of TSP fertilizer is 200/300 dollars but it is being sold at 600/700 dollars. As a result, the government is forced to buy fertilizers at higher prices.
With the increase in oil prices, the cost of transportation has also increased. That is also added to the price.
According to media reports, Bangladesh requires 26.5 lakh tons of urea fertilizer every year. But the production in Bangladesh is about 10 lakh tons. The rest of the demand is imported from Russia, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Qatar.
Seven and a half lakh metric tons of TSP fertilizer is required. But production in the country is one lakh metric tons. The rest is imported from Morocco, Tunisia. 1.6 lakhs of DAP fertilizer are required. Out of that, 1.5 million metric tons of fertilizer is imported from abroad. This fertilizer is mainly imported from China and Jordan. The demand for MOP fertilizer is 8 lakhs, all of which is imported from Belarus, Russia, Canada.
Urea fertilizer production could have been increased in the country.” But our country does not have raw material mines for the production of other fertilizers. Those raw materials can be imported from abroad rather less than the cost of production by importing them in the country. For this reason, many major agricultural countries, including neighboring India, import these fertilizers from certain countries, which have mines and factories for these raw materials.
But this industry is also under pressure due to the gas crisis, lack of raw materials, Russia-Ukraine war, coronavirus. Many countries have restricted the export of fertilizers to increase their production. For example, China is the main exporter of DAP fertilizer in the world, but the country has banned the export of this fertilizer until June 2022.
According to media reports, Bangladesh has no shortage of urea till December, meaning there will be no crisis in the Aman season.” But Bangladesh needs to look beyond Aman and to the Boro, which is the biggest crop and requires 60% of fertilizer supplies. A deal was agreed by Moscow and Kyiv on Friday to allow Ukrainian grain exports, which had been halted since February. Approximately 22 million tons of grain from Ukraine that have been trapped in silos will now be sold on the international market.
Therefore, it is possible that similar agreements on the sale of fertilizer will also be reached, especially in light of the fact that the US government is secretly encouraging maritime and agricultural firms to purchase and transport more Russian fertilizer. However, even if Russian fertilizer is more widely accessible.
Muhammad Abdur Razzaque, the minister of agriculture, said to the media on July 20 that “It’s sad that local urea fertilizer production has ceased because of a gas constraint. But regardless of the cost, we have already started taking steps to gather urea from different sources.”
Fertilizers are one of Russia’s main exports to Bangladesh. Due to the sanctions imposed on Russia as a result of their invasion of Ukraine, Bangladesh must search elsewhere and pay more for its fertiliser needs. Belarus, a significant fertiliser supplier to Bangladesh, has also been negatively hit by the conflict.
Bangladesh always sells fertilizers to the farmers at subsidized prices, even though it is bought at a higher price from the world market.
Being an agricultural country, the government of Bangladesh has always been subsidizing agricultural equipment and materials. In the last century, the amount of that subsidy has increased a lot.
But it’s a news of hope that the Secretary of Agriculture ministry has ordered regular operation of mobile court to prevent artificial shortage of fertilizers or anyone can charge high prices. He said, the country has sufficient stock of fertilizers, there is no chance of shortage of fertilizers anywhere. So, he gave this instruction as part of regular monitoring.
On Sunday (August 21), the Secretary of Agriculture gave these instructions to the field level officers in a virtual meeting of ‘Overall Fertilizer Situation Review’ at the Secretariat. In the meeting, the Deputy Directors of the Directorate of Agricultural Extension of each district highlighted the overall situation of fertilisers.
The agriculture secretary said that the agriculture officials should take extra precautions if some people are deliberately trying to catch fish in the murky waters by spreading rumors. At the end of the discussion, the Secretary of Agriculture gave some instructions to the field officers to ensure proper distribution and sale of fertilizers.
He said that monitoring should be strengthened up to the union level to ensure that the dealers lift the allotted fertilizers on time. Some dealers are rationing the sale of fertilizers due to non-removal of allotted fertilizers on time which is totally illegal. As a result, a kind of artificial fear is created among the farmers at the field level. Fertilizer should not be sold without a receipt. Fertilizer price list should be displayed digitally or digitally in dealers’ and retailers’ shops. The secretary also said to confirm the arrival of fertilizer by visiting the dealer’s warehouse.
Apart from this, the agriculture department will maintain close contact with the district administration and upazila administration and should conduct regular mobile courts. Any information or news of sale of fertilizers at higher prices should be reported immediately and disciplinary action should be taken against the concerned dealers.
At the upazila level, under the chairmanship of the upazila executive officer, the upazila agriculture officer, police officers and dealers should be informed about the adequacy of fertilizers including farmers, public representatives and journalists.
According to media reports, it was informed in the meeting that there is sufficient stock of all kinds of fertilizers in the country against the demand. At present (August 21) stock of urea fertilizer is 6 lakh 49 thousand metric tons, TSP 3 lakh 94 thousand tons, DAP 7 lakh 36 thousand tons, MOP 2 lakh 73 thousand tons. Against the current stock of fertilizers, demand for fertilizers in Amon season (from August to October) is 6 lakh 19 thousand tons of urea, 1 lakh 19 thousand tons of TSP, 2 lakh 25 thousand tons of DAP, 1 lakh 37 thousand tons of MOP.
The current stock of fertilizer is higher than the same period last year. At this time last year, the stock of urea fertilizer was 6 lakh 06 thousand metric tons, TSP 2 lakh 27 thousand tons, DAP 5 lakh 56 thousand tons and MOP 1 lakh 96 thousand tons.
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